Jirikowic, T., Kartin, D., & Olson, H. C. (2008). Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: A descriptive profile of adaptive function. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 75(4), 238-248.

Background. Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) demonstrate neurobehavioral impairments that affect function and participation. Adaptive behavior deficits have been documented; however, specific functional profiles are less well described. Purpose. This study compared caregiver-reported adaptive and maladaptive behaviors between a clinic-referred sample of 25 five- through eight-year-old children with FASD and a sample of 23 children with typical development. Findings. Children with FASD were rated significantly lower on the Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised in social interaction and communication, personal-living skills, and community-living skills and significantly higher on maladaptive behavior scales. Exploratory contrasts revealed strengths and needs within specific functional domains, along with the need for more support and supervision than peers with typical development to perform day-to-day adaptive skills and manage behavior. Implications. Children with FASD and their caregivers need support for daily activities involving personal and social performance. Awareness of specific strengths and needs can guide interventions that promote function and participation.

Kalberg, W. O., & Buckley, D. (2007). FASD: What types of intervention and rehabilitation are useful? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 31(2), 278-285.

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) occurs worldwide when children are prenatally exposed to alcohol. This paper discusses recent findings regarding the neuropsychological and behavioral effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and how it impacts the developmental and functional abilities of children with FASD. Specifically, recent research focus has concentrated on studies to elucidate a neurobehavioral phenotype for the alcohol-exposed population. As a result, the FASD field has learned what types of neurobehavioral issues occur most frequently with these children. This paper discusses how that information can be used to inform school assessment, intervention planning, and support. Strategies for functional assessment, individualized planning, structured teaching, and developments in cognitive-behavioral methods are described. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Koponen, A. M., Kalland, M., & Autti-Rämö, I. (2009). Caregiving environment and socio-emotional development of foster-placed FASD-children. Children and Youth Services Review, 31(9), 1049-1056.

The study investigated the role of the postnatal caregiving environment in the socio-emotional development of children under the age of 16 who had been exposed to alcohol in utero and placed in foster family care (n = 38). Quantitative and qualitative methods of analysis were utilized. Based on psychological examinations, most of the children (76%) were reported to have at least one developmental problem; concentration, attention and language/speech problems being the most typical. The critical issues affecting children’s development were 1) the range of somatic illnesses and disabilities that had impaired their functional capacity, 2) children’s age at the time of the first placement and of entry into long-term foster family care, and 3) the number of traumatic experiences. Placement outside a biological family at an early age decreased, and traumatic experiences, illnesses and disabilities increased socio-emotional problems (including neuropsychological problems). Undiagnosed children had more behavioural problems measured by the Child Behaviour Checklist than children with foetal alcohol syndrome, but in general the differences between the diagnostic categories were small. Damage to the central nervous system by prenatal alcohol exposure together with lack of constructive early interaction seems to launch a process which may make it difficult for the child to form a coherent picture of him-/herself and to control his/her feelings and behaviour. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kotrla, K., & Martin, S. (2009). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: A social worker’s guide for prevention and intervention. Social Work in Mental Health, 7(5), 494-507. doi:10.1080/15332980802466565

Alcohol use during pregnancy can lead to a variety of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral problems, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). There are approximately 40,000 infants born each year in the United States affected by FASD. Despite warnings on the dangers of drinking while pregnant and the existence of effective screening tools, many women at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy fail to be identified. The authors suggest that social workers are uniquely qualified to assist in efforts to screen and intervene with this population. Screening tools and additional resources that may prove beneficial for social workers practicing in health care settings with childbearing aged and/or pregnant women, as well as families impacted by FASD, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

Laugeson, E. A., Paley, B., Schonfeld, A. M., Carpenter, E. M., Frankel, F., & O’Connor, M. J. (2007). Adaptation of the children’s friendship training program for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 29(3), 57-69.

Previous research attests to the marked impairments in social functioning exhibited by children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), suggesting that such children are in need of social skills intervention. Recently, an existing evidence-based manualized behavioral treatment for improving children’s friendships was implemented and demonstrated to be effective with children aged 6-12, diagnosed with FASD. In the present report, we describe methods for adapting this behavioral intervention in line with the specific cognitive and behavioral deficits seen in children with FASD and other developmental disabilities to enhance treatment efficacy. © 2007 by The Haworth Press. Inc. All rights reserved.

Liles, E. E., & Packman, J. (2009). Play therapy for children with fetal alcohol syndrome. International Journal of Play Therapy, 18(4), 192-206. doi:10.1037/a0015664

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the leading birth defect in the United States, yet few treatment options exist for children afflicted with this disorder. Although play therapy has demonstrated its efficacy with numerous special populations, as of today, no research has been conducted on its use with FAS. This article presents an overview of current data on FAS, an argument for the use of child-centered play therapy for children diagnosed FAS, and suggests areas of research needs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

Loock, C., Conry, J., Cook, J. L., Chudley, A. E., & Rosales, T. (2005). Identifying fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in primary care. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 172(5), 628-630.

Manning, M. A., & Eugene Hoyme, H. (2007). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: A practical clinical approach to diagnosis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 31(2), 230-238.
In utero exposure to alcohol can have numerous adverse effects on a developing fetus. These effects represent a spectrum of structural anomalies and neurocognitive and behavioral disabilities that have recently been termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Children at the most severe end of this spectrum and displaying the complete phenotype of characteristic facial anomalies, growth retardation and developmental abnormalities of the central nervous system are defined as having fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). While FAS is the most readily clinically recognized form of FASD, other categories within the continuum of adverse effects due to prenatal alcohol exposure are becoming better defined. These include partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS), alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD) and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND). As more is learned regarding the exact manifestations of alcohol on brain development, these classifications may be expanded and/or refined. Because FASD represents a major public health concern, early recognition of at-risk children is important for initiating interventional strategies. Thus, the purpose of this report is to educate practicing physicians about the recognizable phenotypes of FASD in order to accurately identify these children and implement the most appropriate management plans. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reservedL